Patients randomized to liraglutide had a 60.3% risk of reaching a composite outcome of glycemic deterioration, weight gain, or hypoglycemia compared with 81.4% on glimepiride, 71.9% on glargine, and 69.6% on sitagliptin.
For each increase of one unit per day in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and natural juices, risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) was 11%, 9%, and 16% higher, respectively, a study of U.K. data found. Coffee and tea were not associated with CVD.
Possible mechanisms to explain the association include increased urinary citrate excretion, increased urinary bicarbonate excretion that raises urine pH, or anti-inflammatory effects.
One review found tirzepatide to have more effect on glycemic outcomes than other glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, while another showed several sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors to have similar effects on cardiovascular outcomes.
The small trial comparing time-restricted eating and calorie restriction with control was adequately powered to inform clinical practice, but larger trials with longer follow-up should be done to confirm the results, an ACP Journal Club commentary said.
A recent case report described a woman with long-standing diabetes who developed acute oxalate nephropathy during a hospitalization for diabetic ketoacidosis.